Properties of Nouns
A.Person-the property of nouns that indicates the person speaking(first person),the person spoken to (second person) and the person spoken of (third person).
I,the Mother, will be in charge of the baby today. (first person)
You,young men, must follow me. (second person)
Most of todays youngsters are spoiled brats.(third person)
B.Number-the property of nouns that indicates whether the noun is one(singular) or more than one (plural) in number.
Rules in Forming the Plural Form of Nouns
- Most nouns form the plural by adding s to the singular.
- Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant form their plural by adding es.
- Common nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form their plural by changing y to i and adding es.
- Many Nouns ending in f or fe form their plural changing the f or fe to v and adding es.
- Some nouns form their plural by changing the vowel within the word.
- Some nouns form their plural by addition of en.
- Many words adopted from foreign languages have retained their original plural form,while some have acquired an additional plural English.
- Some add s at the end of compound nouns; others pluralize both words, and some pluralize the first word of the compound.
- Proper nouns usually form their plural by adding s to the name, except when the name ends in s;in which case, es is added.
- Letters, figures, signs,and words regarded merely as words form their plural by adding apostrophe and s.
- A few nouns have two plurals, but the meaning are generally different.
- Some nouns can normally occur in the singular form only. They are called mass nouns or countable nouns.
C.Gender-the property of nouns that indicates whether the noun is masculine(male sex) or feminine (female sex),common for nouns which can be either male or female, and neuter for nouns without sex.
D.Case-the property of nouns that indicates its relationship to the other words in the sentence. Nouns possess three cases:
1.Nominative Case.A noun is in the nominative case when it is used as:
1.1 Subject of the sentence.
My classmates passed the final examination.
1.2 Subject complement( the noun that completes a linking verb and means the same as the subject).
My daughter is a nurse
1.3 Nominative of address(the name of the person or thing directly addressed).
Come,Baby,it's time for you to take a bath!
1.4 Nominative exclamation (the noun performs the function of an interjection to express a special feeling of emotion)
Floodwater!Come on,run for you lives!
1.5 Appositive(the noun that explains another noun it follows)
Father Peter,our Parish priest, is very nice.
2.Objective Case-A noun is in the objective case when it is used as:
2.1 Direct object(the noun that receives the action of the transitive verb)
Father made a study table for us.
2.2 Indirect object (the noun that indirectly receive the action done)
The principal gave the retiree a certificate of recognition.
2.3 Objective complement or predicate objective (the noun that follows the direct object and helps complete the meaning of the transitive verb;or the noun that tells what is done to the direct object)
The organization selected a skillful woman treasurer.
2.4 Object of the preposition the noun that the prepositions connects to another word in the sentence)
Daniel found a ring under the chair.
3.Possessive Case.A noun is in the possessive case(genitive) case when it shows ownership or possession.